The 2nd Symposium on Microsatellites for Remote Sensing (SOMIRES 2014)

The 2nd Symposium on Microsatellites for Remote Sensing (SOMIRES 2014) has been held at Sanur, Indonesia on 22 August 2014 to discuss the progress of our microsatellites project. This symposium was collaborating with Asia Future Conference (AFC 2014) and Chiba University CEReS International Symposium 2014, and attended by about 60 participants.

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Poster 01

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AFC Forum C1: Environmental Remote Sensing and The 2nd CEReS International Symposium (SOMIRES 2014)
Time: Friday, 22/Aug/2014: 2:00pm – 3:30pm
Session Chair: Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo, Chiba University, Japan
Location: Baris Room, Inna Grand Bali Beach Hotel
Language: English

Session Abstract
Recently, global environment changes caused by human activities, natural disaster etc. Remote sensing technology is very important tool to observe the environmental change. This session will discuss remote sensing technology and applications, especially sensor, unmanned aerial vehicle, microsatellite, image analysis and applications etc.
近年、人間活動、自然災害などによって、アジア地域をはじめ、世界各国に環境変化が起きている。この環境変化を監視するために、リモートセンシング技術が欠かせないツールである。本セッションでは、リモートセンシング関連のセンサ、無人航空機、小型衛星、画像処理と応用などを議論する予定である。

Program & Invited Talks:

Microwave Remote Sensing for Environmental Monitoring [Paper]
Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo
Chiba University, Japan; jtetukoss@faculty.chiba-u.jp
Abstract :
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is well-known as a multi-purpose sensor that can be operated in all-weather and day-night time. In this research, we propose Circularly Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (CP-SAR) or Elliptically Polarized Synthetic Aperture Radar (EP-SAR) onboard unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and microsatellite to retrieve the physical information of land surface and disaster monitoring. The sensor is designed as a low cost, light, low profile configuration to transmit and receive left-handed circular polarization (LHCP) and right-handed circular polarization (RHCP). For this purpose, we develop UAV JX series for ground experiment of this sensor. The main mission of CP-SAR is to hold the basic research on elliptically polarized scattering and its application developments. In the basic research, we will investigate the elliptical (including circular and linear polarizations) scattering wave from the land surface, generation of axial ratio image (ARI), ellipticity and tilted angle images etc. We will hold the analysis and experiment of circularly polarized wave scattering on vegetation, snow, ice, soil, rock, sand, grass etc to investigate the elliptical scattering wave. CP-SAR sensor transmits only one polarization, RHCP or LCHP, then this sensor will receive RHCP and LHCP scattering waves simultaneously. The image is employed to investigate the relationship between the physical characteristics of vegetation, soils, snow etc. The image of tilted angle as the response of land surface also will be extracted to mapping the physical information of the surface. In application development, CP-SAR sensor will be implemented for land cover mapping, disaster monitoring, Cryosphere monitoring, oceanographic monitoring etc. In disaster monitoring, CP-SAR sensor will be employed for monitoring of earthquake area, volcano activity, landslide etc. This paper introduces progress on development of our CP-SAR onboard UAV and microsatellite, including the applications.

Scope of Asian Micro-satellite Consortium with Super-constellation [Paper]
Yukihiro Takahashi
Hokkaido University, Japan; yukihiro@mail.sci.hokudai.ac.jp
Abstract :
Micro-satellite with a weight of 50-100 kg has a great potential with various merits compared to larger sized satellite, that is, 1) very low cost development, that is, around 5 M USD including BUS and mission payloads. The launch cost will be about 3-5 M USD as piggyback or assembling launch, 2) quick fabrication in two years for flight model, enabling application of the latest technologies, 3) on-demand operation, taking detail information at a point of interest, and 4) the low cost and quick fabrication make us possible to launch not a small number of satellites, which is called as “constellation” flight. If we have a budget for one large satellite, it’s possible to fabricate and launch 50 or more micro-satellites. Here we suggest the international organization, “Asian micro-satellite consortium” (AMC), which promotes and accelerates the micro-satellite development and the discussion of data utilization. AMC will consist of domestic working group in each country. The each working group is composed of 3 parts: BUS development team, payload development team and data user team, involving various field scientists or engineers, such as forestry, agriculture, fishery, forest fire, bio-diversity, flood, meteorology, climate change, ionospheric / magnetospheric science, etc. Also in AMC we will discuss the possibility of future projects, such as “on-demand operation” or “super constellation” involving more than tens of micro-satellites and unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) under international collaboration. At this moment, institutes/universities in about 10 countries in SE-Asia show strong interest in that collaboration.

Observations of Ionosphere with Mini/Microsatellites – Problems and Solutions- [Paper]
Koichiro Oyama
National Cheng Kung University,Taiwan/Kyushu University,Japan; koh_ichiro@yahoo.co.jp
Abstract :
DC Langmuir probe is one of the key in-situ instruments to study ionosphere. It needs a counter electrode whose conductive surface area is at least 1000 times larger than that of surface area of the electrode. This requirement is usually fulfilled for large satellites which have been launched so far for ionosphere study. Now we are jumping into an era to use tiny satellites. Then we will encounter serious problems if we try to use DC Langmuir probe. One of the problems is related to a small ratio of conductive surfaces of counter electrode to that of the electrode. The second serious problem is associated with contamination of electrode as well as satellite surface. These two factors make it impossible to use DC Langmuir probe as an instrument of tiny satellite. We review problems which appear for the ionosphere measurement by using tiny satellites, and propose ways avoid the problems to accomplish accurate measurements.

Development of Space-based Magnetic Activities Measurement Mission in LAPAN’s Micro-Satellites [Paper]
Robertus Heru Triharjanto1, Harry Bangkit 2, M. Arif Saifudin 1
1 Center for Satellite Technology, LAPAN, Indonesia; 2 Center for Space Science, LAPAN, Indonesia; rtriharjanto@yahoo.com
Abstract :
LAPAN has been observing space weather data using ground-based sensor, among others magnetometer. With the develoment of micro-satellite technology in LAPAN, it become possible for LAPAN to have space-based magnetometer. The paper elaborate the mission concept of the payload, and the development progress that has been done to achieve the mission objectives. The learning process done on the satellite-based magnetometer data handling at the Center of Satellite Technology and Center for Space Science was started with the data handling of magnetometer in attitude control system of LAPAN-A2 micro-satellite. With such knowledge, the specification and the test procedures of magnetometer that will be on-board of LAPAN-A3 and LAPAN-A4 micro-satellite was defined. The paper also discuss further planning that was drawn for the development of more scientific class geomagnetic measurement mission in LAPAN-A4 micro-satellite.

Development of a Ground-based Synthetic Aperture Radar for Land Deformation Monitoring [Paper]
Voon Chet Koo 1, Tetuko Sri Sumantyo Josaphat 2, Tien Sze Lim 1, Yee Kit Chan 1, Habibah Lateh 3
1 Multimedia University, Malaysia; 2 Chiba University, Japan; 3 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia; vckoo@mmu.edu.my
Abstract :
Every year, over one million people are exposed to weather-related landslide hazards around the World. Due to the recent climate change, it is likely that the decrease of permafrost areas, changes in precipitation patterns and increase of extreme weather events will influence the weather-related mass movement activities. This paper reports the recent development of a ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GBSAR) for continuous monitoring of landslide-prone areas in Malaysia. It is an ultra-wideband system operating at 17 GHz with spatial resolution of 0.3 m in range and 5.8 mrad in cross range. The system is mounted on a rail which travels along a linear guide to achieve SAR imaging. The GBSAR has been installed at a test site to provide timely information for landslide monitoring and early warning system. The paper discusses the design, development and field experiments using the new GBSAR system.

The challenge for still unresolved development of Multi-band Equatorially Orbiting POLSAR satellite sensors – an integral task for the major space-SAR technology centers world-wide – focused on the Indonesian Islands Environment [Paper]
Wolfgang-Martin Boerner
University of Illinois at Chicago, United States of America; wmb1uic@yahoo.com
Abstract :
We need to mobilize and draw full responsible attention of the main SAR Development Centres worldwide such as NASA/JPL, ESA/ESTEC, JAXA/EORC, CSA/SAR, DLR/SAR, DSTO/SAR, ISRO/SAC, INPE/SERE plus NTU-Temasek, NCU-CSRSR, LAPAN/RANCABUNGUR, and so on; joining forces and strongly contributing to a viable multi-band general bi-static (including cross/along)-track POLSAR sensor technology, well suited for equatorial monitoring within orbits of +/- 20* latitude. Then, local regions such as the Indonesian islands could be observed daily up to 12 to 14 times, covering both the land and ocean regions essential for environmental protection and meteorological forecasting, respectively, on a hitherto unprecedented global level. With the relentless increase in population density, the anthropogenic expansion into natural terrestrial hazard zones has become irreversible resulting in ever more catastrophic disasters, not only in the Asia-Pacific region more so within the entire tropical belts engulfing Mother Earth. Thus not only the Indonesian-Pacific Islands, so also South America, Africa and back via the Indian Ocean Islands to Asia-Pacific, these natural events like volcano eruptions, earthquakes with emerging tsunami, cyclones and severe down pours have caused havoc, loss of lives, destruction of infrastructure and above all intentional manmade interference resulting in the deterioration of pristine tropical jungle forests. What is required is around-the-clock local and wide-area surveillance and remote sensing of the vegetative cover for which first well designed optical equatorially orbiting satellite sensors had been developed but their successful implementation failed because of the ever increasing cloud, precipitation, humidity and aerosol cover within the entire equatorial belt of +/- 15* ~ 20* latitude rendering penetration at optical wavelength mostly ineffective. Hence, we must take recourse to microwave sensing, and implement radar and synthetic aperture sensors from air and space operational at day & night independent of weather; and the sensors especially suited are the fully polarimetric POL-SAR sensors developed for satellite remote sensing by the major SAR technology development centers worldwide. As first and main test case, we will explore the Indonesian Island region.

The plan for space observation network installation in Southeast Asian region [Paper]
Tu Hwan Kim, Sung Ho Na, Seoung Yong Kang
Ajou University, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); thkim@ajou.ac.kr
Abstract :
In the near future, after spread of the small SAR satellites in Southeast Asian region, each countries will install small ground stations for receiving satellite data. If the ground stations will be equipped with a broadband (2~14 GHz) receiving system, they may be used as VGOS (VLBI Geodetic Observing System) station. In other words, it is possible to do VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) observation with a main station which has a 20 m class antenna equipped with broadband receiving system. And then it can be used for multiple purposes, such as resource exploration, crustal deformation, monitoring of natural disasters and so on.
On the other hand, there is no geodetic VLBI observation networks in Southeast Asia, and they do not use the World Geodetic System (WGS), which is adopted worldwide. To use the WGS, one should determine accurately the reference origin of each the country, and then build its local reference coordinate system. For this purpose, after installing the geodetic VLBI observation station, it is necessary to accurately determine the reference point of the observation station. In this way we can build the new national reference coordinate system based on the WGS. To perform the geodetic VLBI observation thereof, we should construct the international joint, space observation network with small ground stations and the hub observing station with a 22m antenna of Korea.
This paper discuss the multi-purpose space observation network installation in Southeast Asian region.

Image Quality Comparison of Linear Polarized and Circular Polarized SAR [Paper]
Heein Yang 1, Bambang Setiadi 2, Josaphat Tetuko Sri Sumantyo 2, Jae-Hyun Kim 1
1 Ajou University, Korea, Korea, Republic of (South Korea); 2 Chiba university, Japan; jkim@ajou.ac.kr
Abstract :
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is recognized as a powerful surveillance and land observation purpose system these days. An SAR sensor is usually loaded on moving platform such as aerial vehicle or satellite then acquires the images of remote area in interest. Also this system uses microwave for its own illumination source, therefore it can be operated regardless of the weather condition. When SAR system performs its mission in space, there are ionosphere and air in the path of satellite and the target as a propagation medium. Conventional SAR system uses linearly polarized (LP) microwave and as LP wave traverses through the ionosphere, Faraday rotation (FR) effect occurs. FR makes the reference plane of microwave tilt slightly, consequently causes polarization mismatch when receiving the backscattered signal. This polarization mismatch eventually degrades the image quality such as image burling, degradation of contrast, and etc. To cover up the problems of conventional LP-SAR system, this paper proposes that circularly polarized (CP) SAR system which can get rid of polarization mismatch theoretically and compare the pros and cons between LP and CP SAR images with simulated image data.

International cooperative studies on environment and disaster mitigation with satellite remote sensing [Paper]
Fusanori Miura
Yamaguchi University, Japan; miura@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp
Abstract :
The center for Remote Sensing and Ocean Science (CReSOS) was established with the aid of JAXA and LAPAN in Udayana University (UNUD) in 2003. Objectives of CReSOS are: i) to educate graduate school students for environment studies such as research on climate change and oceanography, coastal environment & fishery, land process and precipitation, mechanism of natural disasters and its effects on human society etc., ii) to set up and maintain Indonesia ocean data archives, iii) to promote international cooperative research between UNUD and Japanese research institutions, iv) to be a national node for remote sensing research through these activities. JAXA PILOT PROJECT was started in 2003 and continued until 2008. UNUD and Yamaguchi University (YU) has established joint master course program in 2009 with the support of Grant from Government of Japan for International Graduate School Cooperation by Satellite Remote-Sensing. Then UNUD and YU started double degree program in 2011. Some UNUD students come to YU and study in the second academic year and some of them enter Doctoral course and acquire PhD. Many valuable papers have been published through the program. The program is now expanded not only for Indonesian students, but also for students in Southeast Asia countries.

Proceedings of The 2nd Symposium on Microsatellites for Remote Sensing (SOMIRES 2014) [Download]

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